第三集2021-06-25

中共为什么赢得中国

在北京天安门广场中心的人民英雄纪念碑的碑身上,刻有这样一句话:“三年以来,在人民解放战争和人民革命中牺牲的人民英雄们永垂不朽!”这三年,诉说了中国人民解放军在解放战争中百折不挠的壮丽史诗,镌刻了中华民族为祖国和人民奋斗的信仰。为什么中国共产党能够取得人民解放战争的伟大胜利?根源在于:军队打胜仗,人民是靠山。

在这场战争中,中国共产党紧紧依靠人民群众,获得了排山倒海的力量,结束了国民党的反动统治,建立了崭新的中华人民共和国。

1946年战争爆发前夕,国民党不仅在军队人数上,还是武器装备等方面,均有压倒性的优势,甚至还有美国撑腰。

所以,蒋介石满怀信心地认为,共产党很快会被歼灭。但是,历史却选择了这个看似“弱小”的一方。而造成这种反差的原因是什么?蒋介石是如何将一手好牌打得稀烂的?

张学良曾在晚年的口述历史中给出了答案,在他看来,共产党之所以能发展壮大,就是因为共产党顺应了民意。

就在国民党的军政高管们忙着敛财、压榨人民、党内派系勾心斗角的时候。共产党人提出了一个口号——“一切可能下乡的干部要统统到农村中去”。

据军旅作家王树增采访回忆,在淮海战役打响的时候,村中一位老人参加了支前大军,为了把炮弹运输给解放军,他推着小车,走了三、四百里的路。遇到雨天,他担心炮弹受潮打不响,就把自己的衣服脱下来盖在炮弹上。

运到淮海战场后,也没有急着回老家,而是一定要看着炮弹打出去才放心。那时,供应解放军前线的物资运送,几乎全靠百姓们肩挑背负、小车推送。

新中国成立后,有人问淮海战役指挥者陈毅,这场战役是怎么打赢的,陈毅说,是老百姓用小车推出来的。

由于多年的战乱,中国经济遭受极大破坏,农业生产力极度低下,亟待恢复与重建。为了保障农民生存利益,共产党提出要解决农民土地问题。

1946年5月4日,中共中央发布了《五四指示》,宣布改变过去的减租减息政策,改为将地主占有的土地分配给贫苦的农民。

百姓们有了地,就有了粮,就有了维持生存的根本,此时的他们更加深刻地认识到,只有中国共产党才真正心系人民群众。

后来,仅1000多万人口的“北满地区”,就有40万农民自愿加入共产党领导的军队,这很快改变了东北战场的力量对比。

而反观国民党抓壮丁的强制征兵行为,解放军的士气自然远远压倒敌人,逐渐地,一些国民党军队甚至成建制地投诚。

土地改革运动不仅是一场提高国内生产力的经济运动,更是一场人民解放运动,这场运动也极大提高了中国共产党夺取政权的可能性。

随着解放战争的节节胜利,新的解放区必须着手建立新政权。

而在建立新政权的过程中,创造于抗日战争时期陕甘宁边区的“豆选”再一次让基层群众实现了当家做主。

美国记者斯特朗在延安采访时,一位劳动模范老杨对她说,“新社会和旧社会最大的不同是旧社会没有选举,而在新社会每个人都能投票”。

没有民主就没有社会主义,只有实行真民主才能得到真民心。

与国民党在抗战胜利后聚“国难财”、争官衔相比,共产党人则表现出对名利的淡泊和事业的忠诚。

1955年,彭德怀、罗荣桓等人听说自己被评为“大元帅”的消息时,他们纷纷直言谢绝;刘少奇、周恩来也纷纷表示不参加评定军衔;许光达作为一名高级将领甚至提出降衔,后来考虑各种因素,还是授予其大将军衔,但在许光达的一再要求下,给他降低了一级工资;徐立清曾在解放战争初期担任正兵团级职务,属于正兵团级将领,按理授予上将,但是在确定授衔名单时,他先后给军委领导写了十多封信,坚决要求降衔。

毛泽东表扬说:“不简单哪,金钱、地位和荣誉可以看出一个人的思想和品格,古来如此!”

在中国人民革命军事博物馆解放战争的展厅中,“人民的胜利”五个烫金大字十分醒目。

展厅内一座“人民支前”浮雕,刻画了人民群众与人民解放军勠力同心、并肩战斗的生动场景。

历史可以过去,但不会被人遗忘,中国共产党的历史就是一场为人民奋斗、谋幸福的历史。

正如中共中央总书记习近平所说,有了民心所向、民意所归、民力所聚,人民军队就能无往而不胜、无敌于天下,人民军队必须牢记全心全意为人民服务的根本宗旨,任何时候任何情况下都做人民子弟兵。

 

Why did the CPC Win the War of Liberation?

 

On the Monument to the People's Heroes standing at the heart of Tian'anmen Square in Beijing carved a line:

 “Eternal glory to the people's heroes who laid down their lives in the People's War of Liberation and the people's revolution in the three years!”

The three years is a magnificent epic of the unyielding struggle of the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) in the War of Liberation, recording the Chinese nation's commitment to fight for the country and its people.

Why was the Communist Party of China (CPC) able to win such a great victory in the War of Liberation?

Here lies the root: The victory of an army relies on the people.

During this war, with the strong support of the Chinese people, the CPC gained enormous strength, thereby finishing the reactionary rule of the Kuomintang and establishing the People's Republic of China.

In 1946, just before the war, the Kuomintang had overwhelming advantages not only in the number of troops but also in weaponry and other things.It was even backed by the United States.

So Chiang Kai-shek had full confidence that the CPC would soon be eliminated. 

But history chose to stand on this seemingly "weak" side.

What was the reason behind that contrast?

How did Chiang Kai-shek waste the precious window of opportunity?

The oral history told by Zhang Xueliang in his late years gives us the answer.He believed that it is because the CPC conformed to public opinion that it could grow up and thrive.

When the Kuomintang military leaders were busy enriching themselves, squeezing the people and involved in rivalries with different factions of their party,

the CPC proposed a slogan, "All the cadres who may go to the countryside for work should go deep to the rural areas."In the eyes of the PLA, their logistics department was composed of ordinary people。

As Wang Shuzeng, a military writer, recalled in an interview,

when the Huaihai Campaign started, an old villager joined the supporting troops.

He trundled a wheelbarrow for about 100 miles to transport shells to the PLA.

In the rainy days, he would take off his clothes and put them over the shells, in case that they would misfire if getting damped.

Finishing the transport task,he didn't rush to come back home before the shells were fired to enemies.

At that time, the transport of military goods and materials to the frontline largely relied on ordinary people, who carried them on their shoulders or backs and by their carts.

After the founding of New China, when the commander of Huaihai Campaign Chen Yi was questioned how they won this battle,

he said that it was the ordinary people who trundled wheelbarrows to help them win.

Due to years of war, China's economy has been greatly damaged with extremely low agricultural productivity, which needs to be restored and rebuilt. To protect the survival interests of farmers, the CPC proposed to tackle the problem related to farmers' land.

The CPC Central Committee issued "the May Fourth Instructions" on May 4, 1946, declaring that they would change the policy of reducing rents and interest, and distribute the land occupied by landlords to poor farmers.

Once the people had land, they would produce food. That would be the basis for their survival.

And the people further learnt that only the CPC cared for them in the true sense.

Later on, in northeastern China with a population of over 10 million, 400,000farmers volunteered to join the army led by the CPC, which soon changed the power structure of the battlefield there.

The Kuomintang, in contrast, forced young men into conscription. So the morale of the PLA was far higher than the Kuomintang; gradually, some troops of the latter even surrendered in an organized way.

The land reform was not only an economic revolution that boosted national productivity, but also a liberation movement for the Chinese people, thereby enhancing the likelihood for the CPC to seize the ruling power.

As the CPC gained a succession of victories in the War of Liberation, new governments had to be established at the newly liberated areas.

During this process, the "bean ballot" created in the Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia border region in the anti-Japanese war enabled the local people to be the true masters of the country again.

When the American reporter Anna Louise Strong was doing interviews in Yan'an, a model worker surnamed Yang told her,

"The biggest difference between the old society and the new one is that there was no election in the old society, but in the new society everyone can vote."

Without democracy, there will be no socialism; only the real democracy can win people's hearts.

While the Kuomintang members were making profits from the disaster and fighting for the ranks after the victory over Japan, the CPC members showed their indifference to wealth and fame, and loyalty to their career.

In 1955, when Peng Dehuai and Luo Ronghuan,among others,heard that they would be awarded the rank of grand marshal, they all politely declined the rank.

Liu Shaoqi and Zhou Enlai also refused to accept any ranks.

As a senior military officer, Xu Guangda even asked for demotion. 

With various factors considered, he was still awarded the rank of senior general.

But his salary was one level lower at his repeated request.

Xu Liqing, once the general at the regiment level when the War of Liberation started,should have been granted the rank of general. But when the Central Military Commission (CMC) was confirming the commission list, he wrote over 10 letters to the CMC leaders and insisted on demotion.

Mao Zedong praised him, "So marvelous! We can tell a person's thoughts and morals from his attitudes towards wealth, status and honor. It's always been so since ancient times."

In the exhibition hall about the War of Liberation in the Military Museum of Chinese People's Revolution, there are five remarkable golden Chinese characters, "人民的胜利," meaning "People's Victory" in English.

A relief called "People Supporting the Frontline" in the hall vividly depicts the scene of the people and the PLA fighting together.

History represents the past, but will not be forgotten. The history of the CPC is a history of fighting for the people and their welfare. 

As Xi Jinping, general secretary of the CPC Central Committee, once said, the people's army will conquer all as long as they strive for the common aspirations of the people and are supported by the people. They must bear in mind their responsibility of serving the people whole heartedly.They are the people's army at all times and under all circumstances.

 

 

《红星何以照耀中国》 / 中国网出品

出品人 / 王晓辉    

总监制 / 杨新华    

总策划 / 蔡晓娟   

执行策划 / 蒋新宇

专家顾问 / 陈述 中共中央党校教授    陈中奎 中国人民解放军国防大学副教授

导演 / 仇俊博    

编导 / 申罡  时畅  郭泽涵  鲁波  孔竟泽

设计 / 顾榕楠

制作 / 马跃

翻译 / 汪玮  李秀宇

摄影 / 陶世欣  毛欢东

后期 / 于舜源  傅华洋

专家团队
  • 韩庆祥

    中央党校校务委员会原委员
  • 王洪波

    首都师范大学马克思主义学院副院长、教授
  • 王海滨

    中央党校马克思主义学院副教授
  • 胡敏

    中央党校(国家行政学院)研究员
  • 郭建宁

    清华大学马克思主义学院教授
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