第二集2021-06-25

偉大遠征,信仰和人民的力量

馬克思主義哲學認為,事物發展的方向是前進的,而事物前進的道路則是曲折的。這一觀點對信仰馬克思主義的中國共產黨而言同樣適用。

1933年,中國共產黨的敵人蔣介石調集100萬軍隊,親任總司令,并且聘請一大批德國軍事專家做顧問,擬訂作戰計劃,還用美國、英國的巨額貸款購買了大批軍火,極大地提升了部隊的裝備水平。

這一切都是為了應對時年只有12歲的中國共產黨。

而此時,毛澤東失去了對軍隊的領導和指揮權,實際領導人博古對共產國際軍事顧問李德十分依賴,但李德是一個外國革命者,他完全不了解中國的實際情況,只是照搬蘇聯紅軍正規戰爭的經驗,這決定了戰爭的結果只能是慘敗。

中國共產黨領導的軍隊最終被迫進行戰略轉移,這場戰略轉移被稱為“長征”。后來證明,艱苦卓絕的長征使這支隊伍浴火重生。長征途中,中國共產黨的軍隊一路打一路走,擺脫了蔣介石軍隊的圍追堵截。

衣衫襤褸、屢遭重創的紅軍血戰湘江、四渡赤水、強渡大渡河、飛奪瀘定橋、翻過皚皚雪山、走出茫茫草地,最終匯聚成滾滾“紅”流,擊敗敵人,建立了新中國。

上個世紀60年代初,美國記者埃德加?斯諾問毛澤東:“你一生中最黑暗的時刻是什么時候?”毛澤東回答說,那是在1935年的長征途中,在草地與張國燾之間的斗爭。

當時,一、四方面軍會合后,張國燾拒絕執行中央的北進方針,堅持南下,鬧分裂。為顧全大局,也為了盡快化解紅軍的不利處境,毛澤東只得帶領中央機關和紅三軍團連夜北上。

待情緒激動的四方面軍副參謀長李特和一隊全副武裝的騎兵趕來,毛澤東表現得十分冷靜,對他們說:你們實在要南下也可以,相信以后總會有重新會合的機會?!拔覀兌际羌t軍,都是共產黨,都是一家人,一家人不打一家人嘛!現在愿意北上的跟黨中央走,愿意跟張國燾的可以回去。以后我們還會在一起的?!?/p>

毛澤東說:“長征是歷史紀錄上的第一次,長征是宣言書,長征是宣傳隊,長征是播種機?!泵鎸φx和邪惡兩種力量的交鋒、光明和黑暗兩種前途的抉擇,中國共產黨始終團結群眾、依靠群眾,以自己的模范行動,贏得人民真心支持,廣大人民群眾是長征勝利的力量源泉。長征途中,中國共產黨還推動了抗日民族統一戰線的形成,中國人民群眾深刻認識到,中國共產黨是為人民謀利益的黨,紅軍是人民的軍隊。長征的勝利,宣傳了中國共產黨的主張,播撒下革命的火種,擴大了中共的影響,使中共與人民的聯系更加緊密。

 “長征”成為中國共產黨的精神符號。中國共產黨從中提煉出了“長征精神”,“長征精神”是什么?

2016年10月,在紀念紅軍長征勝利80周年大會上,中共中央總書記習近平對“長征精神”做了解讀:“偉大長征精神,就是把全國人民和中華民族的根本利益看得高于一切,堅定革命的理想和信念,堅信正義事業必然勝利的精神;就是為了救國救民,不怕任何艱難險阻,不惜付出一切犧牲的精神;就是堅持獨立自主、實事求是,一切從實際出發的精神;就是顧全大局、嚴守紀律、緊密團結的精神;就是緊緊依靠人民群眾,同人民群眾生死相依、患難與共、艱苦奮斗的精神?!?/p>

回望長征,可以清晰地看到,長征不僅是一次人類精神和意志的偉大遠征,也是一段中國共產黨領導中國人民尋求中華民族復興的偉大征程。接續歷史,現在的中國,每一代人都有每一代人的長征路,每一代人都要走好自己的長征路。

 

 

 

The Long March, Faith and People Power

 

Marxist philosophy holds that the future is bright while the road ahead is tortuous.This also applies to the Communist Party of China(CPC) which believes in Marxism.

In 1933, Chiang Kai-shek, the then rival of the CPC,mobilized1 million troops, acted as the commander-in-chief himself, and hired a large number of German military experts as consultants to draw up war plans. He also purchased large quantities of arms with huge loans from the United States and Britain, greatly improving the equipment performance of his troops.

All this was supposed to fight against the then only 12-year-old CPC.

At that time, Mao Zedong lost his leadership and command of the army. The actual leader Bogu, also known as Qin Bangxian, relied heavily on Li De (Otto Braun), the military adviser from the Communist International. However, Li was a foreign revolutionary. He did not know the actual conditions in China at all, but only borrowed the regular warfare experience from the Soviet Red Army, which led to the defeat of the war.

The army led by the CPC was finally forced to carry out a strategic transfer, known as the "Long March."

It was later proved that the arduous Long March revived the army.During the Long March, the CPC's army fought all the way, and finally broke through encirclement by Chiang's troops.

The ragged and hard-hit Red Army fought bitterly at the Xiangjiang River, made four crossings of the Chishui River, fought their way across the Dadu River, and seized the Luding Bridge. The army climbed over snow-capped mountains, trekked across vast grasslands, and finally joined forces to defeat the enemy and establish new China.

In the early 1960s, American journalist Edgar Snow asked Mao Zedong, "What's the darkest moment in your life?"

Mao replied that it was the conflict between him and Zhang Guotao in 1935 during the Long March.

At that time, after the First and Fourth Front Armies joined forces, Zhang refused to implement the Central Committee's policy of marching north, insisted on going south, and tried to split the Party and the Red Army.

To see a big picture and to resolve the adversity of the Red Army as soon as possible, Mao Zedong had to lead the central authority and the Third Front Army up the north overnight. 

When Li Te,the deputy chief of the Fourth Front Army who was worked up, came together with a team of fully armed cavalry, Mao Zedong showed a very calm expression and said that they could go south and that he believed they would meet again in the future. "We are all from the Red Army, and from the Communist Party of China. We're a big family, and will never fight against each other!

Now anyone who'd like to go north could follow the CPC Central Committee, and the rest could go back with Zhang Guotao. We'll meet again in the future."

Mao Zedong said,"With no precedent in recorded history, the Long March issued a manifesto, spread a message, and planted a seed."

As the opposing forces of good and evil clashed, and a choice had to be made between light and dark, the CPC rooted itself deep among the people, uniting them and relying on them. With its own exemplary actions, the CPC won the genuine support of the people, who became an endless fountain of strength for the victory of the Long March.

During the Long March, the CPC also promoted the formation of the anti-Japanese national united front. The Chinese people deeply realized that the CPC worked for the people's benefits and the Red Army was the people's army. 

The victory of the Long March justified what the CPC stands for, sowed the seeds of revolution, expanded the influence of the Party and brought the CPC more closely connected with its people.

The "Long March" has become a spiritual symbol of the CPC.Hence comes the "Long March spirit." What is the "Long March spirit" then?

In October 2016, at a gathering to commemorate the 80th anniversary of the victory of the Long March, Xi Jinping, general secretary of the CPC Central Committee, interpreted the "Long March spirit" as"regarding the fundamental interests of the people and nation above anything else,upholding revolutionary ideals and beliefs, and firmly believing that the cause of justice is bound to succeed;being willing to sacrifice everything for our nation and people when facing difficulties and obstacles;pursuing independence, seeking truth from facts and proceeding from reality; taking the overall situation into consideration, strictly observing discipline and uniting closely; relying firmly on the people, sharing weal and woe with the people, and struggling hard alongside the people."

Looking back on the Long March, we can clearly see that it is not only a great expedition of human spirit and willpower, but also a great journey for the Chinese people to seek the rejuvenation of their nation under the leadership of the CPC.

Following the past footprints, each Chinese generation has its own long march, and each generation should proceed with its own long march.

 

 

《紅星何以照耀中國》 / 中國網出品

出品人 / 王曉輝    

總監制 / 楊新華    

總策劃 / 蔡曉娟   

執行策劃 / 蔣新宇

專家顧問 / 陳述 中共中央黨校教授    陳中奎 中國人民解放軍國防大學副教授

導演 / 仇俊博    

編導 / 申罡  時暢  郭澤涵  魯波  孔竟澤

設計 / 顧榕楠

制作 / 馬躍

翻譯 / 汪瑋  李秀宇

攝影 / 陶世欣  毛歡東

后期 / 于舜源  傅華洋

 

專家團隊
  • 韓慶祥

    中央黨校校務委員會原委員
  • 王洪波

    首都師范大學馬克思主義學院副院長、教授
  • 王海濱

    中央黨校馬克思主義學院副教授
  • 胡敏

    中央黨校(國家行政學院)研究員
  • 郭建寧

    清華大學馬克思主義學院教授
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